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API Application Programming Interface. A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. (See Javadoc.)
Applet A program written in Java which embeds an application into a web page and runs within a web browser.
Area The directory within an option tree that stores a set of homogeneous files. (See Option Tree.)
Atomic Results Results parameters with more than one numeric element.
Atoms One or more scalars.
AUX A data file directory (stored data files become an auxiliary form of processed data).
AUX List List of data file directories available to NeXtMidas; managed by the AUXILIARY command.
AWT Abstract Window Toolkit. The original graphic toolset for Java.(See Swing.)
Blue File The primary data file format used by NeXtMidas and X-Midas. (See Gold File.)
Data One or more elements.
EEEI A notation indicating little-endian byte ordering in Blue File data. This default representation is used on x86 Windows and Linux systems. (See IEEE, Representation.)
Elements One or more atoms.
Extended Header An area of a Blue File that holds more information than is carried in the standard header.
FDOA Frequency Difference of Arrival. A common geodetic measurement parameter. (See TDOA.)
Format The type of stored data that specifies both Midas Type and Mode. (See Type, Mode.)
Global Switch (1) A command switch supported by the NeXtMidas Shell that is common to all commands. Examples include /BG and /ID=.

(2) A command switch common to all graphical primitives, such as /THEME=.
Gold File An older file format replaced by Blue Files. The CONVERT command converts Gold Files into Blue Files. (See Blue File.)
GUI Graphical User Interface containing widgets, menus, and prompts. (See Widget.)
Header Supplies essential descriptive information about signal data within a Blue file. Defines the structure and content of an output file. (See Blue File.)
HOMEPATH The local working or "home" directory. Initially set to the login directory, but can be changed using the HOMEPATH command. NeXtMidas searches this directory for User Macros. (See User Macro.)
IEEE (1) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. IEEE frequently publishes computational standards followed by Java programmers.

(2) A notation indicating big-endian byte ordering for Blue File data. This default representation is used on SPARC/Solaris systems. (See EEEI, Representation.)
Installed Macro A macro command added to the command dictionary of an option tree.
Interactive The shell is explicitly started, then commands are entered in response to the shell prompt. (See One-Shot.)
Intrinsics Run-to-completion commands that typically do not process signal data. The primary processing section of an intrinsic executes only once. Examples of intrinsics include CALCULATOR, STATUS, and TIMEX.
Keyword (1) Part of a Blue File Header containing descriptive information. (See Blue File, Header.)

(2) A type of parameter passed to a command. Keyword parameters are specified on the command line using a <keyword>=<value> syntax. (See Parameter.)
J2SE Java 2 Platform Standard Edition. Also known as Java.
JavaBeans Reusable software components written in Java (typically, graphical widgets), designed to plug into a GUI or data container used by web servers.
Javadoc A tool for generating API documentation in HTML from doc comments in source code. (See API.)
JDK Java Development Kit. Compiles and runs Java programs. (Prior to 2004, the term J2SDK was used.)
JNI Java Native Interface. Interface that allows Java programs to use native C/C++ code.
JNLP Java Network Launching Protocol. Protocol used by Java WebStart. (See WebStart.)
JRE Java Runtime Environment. Enables Java programs to run, but not compile. An integral part of the JDK. (Prior to 2004, the term J2RE was used.) (See JDK.)
Macro A sequence of NeXtMidas commands stored in a text file with the extension .mm.
Messages Self-describing objects used to pass control instructions from one running command to another. Unlike X-Midas, NeXtMidas messages use names rather than numbers.
Metacharacter A special character typed on a command line to invoke unique functions.
Mode (1) The method in which the NeXtMidas shell is invoked. (See Interactive, One-Shot.)

(2) An identifier indicating a multi-valued data type. Data modes include: Scalar, Complex, and Vector. (See Format.)
NMROOT Root directory where NeXtMidas is installed.
One-Shot A command entered in response to an operating system prompt. It starts a temporary shell to manage command exectution. (See Interactive.)
Open Architecture A system whose command set is designed to be augmented by system users.
Option Tree A set of NeXtMidas commands bundled together by common functionalities. For example, the MAP option tree contains useful map-plotting commands.
Parameter Specifies the arguments required by a command. Defines the action and identifies the data to be acted on in a command.
Primitives Commands written in Java to process data files. Contain a processing loop (the process(..) method) to process a single block of data; the loop repeats for each successive block of data until it reaches the end.
Qualifier Modifies the normal interpretation of the file. For example, temp{FS=1} sets the frame size of the Blue File temp to 1.
Representation Byte ordering of data. (See IEEE, EEEI.)
Results A list of available "results" parameters stored in <label>=<value> pairs. Created and displayed using the RESULTS command. Also called the Results List. (See Results Parameter.)
Results Parameter A named value (typically, the "results" of a computation) consisting of a label (the name of the parameter) and a value (usually Data with a given type). (See Results.)
RMI Remote Method Invocation. Makes objects at a remote site accessible as if they were local objects.
RMIF Remote Midas InterFace. A network protocol that communicates with remote NeXtMidas/X-Midas sessions. Provides a mechanism for run-time communication between NeXtMidas commands running on different platforms.
Scalar A single, real-valued number stored in an integer or floating-point format.
Swing The next generation of Java graphical toolkit following AWT; it is more full-featured than AWT. Available as of JDK 1.2.(See AWT.)
Switch Modifies the normal behavior of the command without changing the calling sequence or number of parameters. It permits new versions of commands to have additional command capability while still preserving the backward compatibility of the command. Frequently used to (i) modify the operating mode of a command, (ii) specify an alternate data format for computation, and (iii) specify an alternate data computation rate.
TDOA Time Difference of Arrival. A common geodetic measurement parameter. (See FDOA.)
Type (1) How data is represented. Midas types include: Double, Float, Long and Byte. Java types include: double, float, long, and byte. Note: Although Midas and Java have identical type names, definitions may vary. (See Format.)

(2) How data is structured within a Blue File. File types include: Type 1000, Type 2000, and Type 3000.
User Macro An uninstalled macro. Resides in the current HOMEPATH directory, and is designated with a percent sign (%) in front of the macro name. It's typically a prototype before it is included in an Option Tree. (See HOMEPATH, Installed Macro.)
Vectored Results Values stored in a Blue File that are interacted with using Results-like syntax. Provides a simple mechanism to retrieve or set a single entry in a Blue File.
XBC X-Midas Backwards Compatibility. Using the XBC option tree, X-Midas Host primitives run in NeXtMidas.
X-Midas An older version of Midas based on Fortran/C that runs in X-Windows. X-Midas is not as portable as NeXtMidas and lacks many Web and networking features which are standard with NeXtMidas.
WebStart Starts Java applications via a web link, but downloads and runs on the local system independent of a web browser.
Widget The part of a GUI that allows a user to interface with an application using graphical buttons, pop-up windows, pull-down menus, scroll bars, etc. (See GUI.)


The following terms are common to most Midas environments such as X-Midas and NeXtMidas. They are frequently used inside NeXtMidas primitives.
HCB Header Control Block. This is the typical name used in X-Midas to refer to the handle to a file. Due to familiarity with X-Midas, many NeXtMidas programmers use this name to refer to the DataFile used by a primitive.
HIN HCB In. Used to indicate an input file similar to the way HCB is used.
HOUT HCB Out. Used to indicate an output file similar to the way HCB is used.
M Midas. This variable, common to all primitives, is a pointer to the Midas context in which the primitive runs (see the JavaDocs for nxm.sys.lib.Midas).
MA Midas Arguments. This variable, common to all primitives, is a pointer to the set of arguments passed to the primitive (see the JavaDocs for nxm.sys.lib.Args).
MR Midas Results. This variable, common to all primitives, is a pointer to the set of results that the primitive accesses (see the JavaDocs for nxm.sys.lib.Results).